We’ve all seen them. Family trees with children born to a mother who died before their birth, or three children born in the same year and linked to the same parents (and they are not triplets). People marrying at age 10, and women having babies in their 70s.
As we research, it is essential to ask ourselves, “Does this make sense?”. I recently came across some research done on my 5th great grandfather, Edward Bellis, on Familysearch. I have not been able to identify his mother yet but I do have his christening record for 1735 identifying him as the son of Edward Belis. I was surprised to see that someone had identified his mother and had added the new parents’ marriage document as proof of not only the marriage but as a source for Edward’s birth.
If the person who had added the mother and the marriage record would have stopped and looked at the dates, they would have seen immediately that something wasn’t right.
Look at Edward’s christening date. Now look at the supposed parents’ marriage date. A couple marrying in 1737 would not have had a child christened in 1735. If by some chance the child, Edward, was actually the illegitimate son of Edward Bellis, from before he was married to Anne Williams, the record would show it as such. In the 1700s, church officials would write in the birth as illegitimate on the record itself as can be seen below, on the same page as the register showing Edward’s christening in 1735.1
The above is a simple example of why it’s important to pay attention to dates and to stop and ask ourselves, “Does this make sense?”.
“Wales, Flintshire, Parish Registers, 1538-1912,” database, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.1.1/KCRJ-SJQ : 11 February 2018), Edward Belis, 16 Aug 1735, Baptism; from “Parish Records Collection 1538-2005,” database and images, findmypast (http://www.findmypast.com : 2012); citing Holywell, Flintshire, Wales, The National Archives, Kew, Surrey. ↩
You’re excited to start researching one of your ancestors. You jump in but soon find yourself following those BSOs (Bright Shiny Objects) down many different paths. At the end of 2 hours you have little to show for your effort. This is where a Research Plan can come in handy.
What is a Research Plan? It’s a plan to help identify what you want to know about a particular person/couple/event and what sources you would need to look at to find that information. Research plans contain a focused question that we want to answer (the research objective). And a way to answer that question (the research plan). Research plans of necessity are flexible and adapt as we accept or reject information located in our search. There is no one size fits all research plan. All of us have different tools we use to approach our research but the basic steps of a Research Plan remain the same:
1) Begin by revisiting old research. What do you know about the person/couple/event and how do you know it? Evaluate the information. How reliable is the information? Are there any obvious contradictions or errors? Do you have proven information or do you need to confirm it using original sources?
2) Formulate your research objective. Write down a specific question. What is your goal? What information are you trying to find? Keep the question focused so that the resulting search is focused.
3) Create a working hypothesis or just simply brainstorm. Using the information from your previous research, what are your initial thoughts on how to proceed? What comes to mind as you think about finding the answer to your research objective? What sources can you think of to consult? Where are those sources found?
Here is a short example of the creation of a Research Plan to answer the following research objective:
Find and confirm the date of birth or baptism of Emma Glasby born about 1850 in Finningley, Nottinghamshire, England. Confirm the names of Emma Glasby’s parents.
What do I already know? (Step 1: Revisit old research and evaluate it)
From previous research I know that Emma Glasby was born about 1850, in Finningley, Nottinghamshire, England. I have a note that her mother was Elizabeth Glasby (born about 1829 also in Finningley, Nottinghamshire). Emma Glasby’s grandparents were named as George and Elizabeth Glasby. I have nothing noted for the name of Emma’s father.
The first clue that I may be adjusting my research objective is the fact that Emma’s last name is the same as her mother. This could mean that either Emma’s mother married someone with the same last name (possible although somewhat unlikely) or that Emma was illegitimate. If I discover that Emma was illegitimate then the chances are slim (not impossible but very slim!) of finding her biological father. I may need to adjust my research objective and tailor it to the new information that I have. In evaluating the evidence I note that I do not have a source for Emma’s approximate birth date of 1850.
Revised Research Objective (Step 2: Formulate or refine your research objective)
Find and confirm the date of birth or baptism of Emma Glasby born about 1850 in Finningley, Nottinghamshire, England. Determine if both parents are named on the document.
Brainstorm (Step 3: Create a working hypothesis)
I like to use mind mapping as I brainstorm. Some people prefer to use timelines or a research plan template or to just jot things down on a piece of paper. Use whichever method works for you. Below is the mind map I created for working on Emma Glasby:
This was created using iMindMap. There are a lot of different mind mapping software programs out there. (I have no connection to iMindMap, I simply like their software).
My research process:
Using FamilySearch I was able to locate a record indicating that Emma’s mother is an Elizabeth Glasby and that Emma Glasby was baptized on 9 Sep 1849 in Finningley, Nottinghamshire. This date fits with my previous research and the name of the mother as Elizabeth. This is an indexed record, there is no image available. And while Emma’s mother’s name is given, the record does not name a father, adding some credence to the thought that Emma was likely illegitimate.
Although indexed records are a great finding tool we don’t stop there when attempting to find direct evidence. Evaluating the original baptism entry, if extant, is imperative. Is it available online? We already know that FamilySearch has only the indexed record. Here is where I return to my mind map and look at the sources that I had written down. I noted that I would check all the major genealogy websites like Ancestry, Findmypast and MyHeritage. Ancestry has the same indexed record as FamilySearch with no additional information. Findmypast also has the same record indexed but provides further information in the form of the name of the church Emma was baptized in, namely Holy Trinity and St. Oswald in Finningley, Nottinghamshire. The record is blank where the father’s name should be.
Returning to my mind map I can see that I also noted down to check the FamilySearch Wiki to find out what they have on Finningley and on the church Emma Glasby was baptized in.
I am able to read more about the church and see whether any additional records might exist for it. There is a link from the FamilySearch Wiki to records at both Findmypast and FamilySearch itself. These are the records I have already checked.
When I was working on my mind map I noted that perhaps the Nottinghamshire Archives might have records online. A Google search quickly gives me the Nottinghamshire Archives website, but unfortunately only a small collection of indexed records are online and there are no images of those records at all. There is no online record for the baptism of Emma Glasby at the Nottinghamshire Archives site. A further avenue for research would be to contact the Archives via email and ask what help they may be able to provide.
Again referencing my mind map I am reminded that I had a thought that perhaps Elizabeth married someone with the same last name and that is why daughter Emma has Glasby has her last name. A search provides no evidence of a marriage for Elizabeth Glasby within 5 years of the birth of Emma Glasby in 1849.
It’s always good to take a step back and assess what you have:
Indexed baptism record found for Emma Glasby, giving date of baptism as 9 Sep 1849 and confirming location as Finningley, Nottinghamshire
Indexed baptism record confirms mother as Elizabeth Glasby
Indexed baptism record does not have a father listed
Indexed baptism record does give name of church where Emma was baptized
A search for a marriage for Elizabeth Glasby between 1845 and 1855 has negative results
In summary: I have been able to confirm preliminarily through an indexed record, that Emma’s mother was Elizabeth Glasby and that Emma was baptized on 9 Sep 1849 in the Anglican church of Holy Trinity and St. Oswald in Finningley, Nottinghamshire. I was not able to find the actual image of the baptism entry online. I am unable to confirm my theory that Emma was illegitimate (although the initial research strongly suggests that may be the case) and that no father will have been indicated on the original record. The indexed record on FamilySearch indicates the film number that the record was indexed from. My next step is to order the film from the Family History Library in Salt Lake City and locate the actual baptism entry.
There are many different directions I can keep searching in, but my research objective keeps me focused on the current goal of finding and confirming Emma Glasby’s date of birth/baptism and parentage. Once I have answered those questions I can move on and create another research objective and research plan and look further at Elizabeth Glasby herself. A brief glance at the 1851 U.K. census (the first census taking place after Emma’s birth in 1849) indicates that Emma Glasby is one year of age and enumerated with her grandparents and not her mother Elizabeth. The mystery deepens!
Researching with a plan in mind helps focus us on our objective. Research plans can be simple or complex; it is really what works for you that is important.
It’s Back to School and over at Little Bytes of Life Elizabeth O’Neal is asking what we think our students need to learn. Elizabeth states that our “students” could be:
genealogists of any level, from brand-new to advanced,
children and/or teens,
disinterested family members who roll their eyes when you talk about genealogy
even ourselves, sharing something we wish we had known before we started
I thought about some things that I have noticed lately and some things I wish I had known when I started out and wondered if perhaps the new genealogists among us might gain something from my list of things NOT to expect when starting out:
My Top Five List of Things NOT To Expect When Starting Your Genealogy
Do not expect to trace your ancestry back to Adam and Eve. Yes, there really are people who will tell you that they have traced their tree back to biblical times and that you can do the same. And no, it is not possible as it simply cannot be documented.
Do not expect that online trees will offer sourced and proven research that you can easily incorporate into your tree. And never ever simply download a GEDCOM of an online tree into your family history software. My advice for those wanting to use information from online trees is to be cautious. More especially when the tree offers no documented sources. Use the information you find to point you in a direction for further research and adopt the Genealogical Proof Standard (GPS) in moving forward. What is the GPS? It is the process used by genealogists to determine what the minimums are for our work to be considered credible. More information on the GPS can be found on the site for the Board for Certification of Genealogists and in the highly recommended book by Christine Rose titled ‘Genealogical Proof Standard: Building a Solid Case’. The GPS is definitely something I wish I had been schooled in before I started!
Do not expect that every record you need will be found online. Although there have been huge advances in digitizing and indexing record collections, we are nowhere close to having it all available online. If you are serious about your research you will, at some stage, need to reach out to an archive or other repository without online holdings, and sometimes you may need to make a trip to a local county courthouse yourself. Lori Samuelson of Genealogy At Heart wrote an excellent post addressing this topic which I think is well worth reading.
Do not expect that you will be able to access every record you need for free. I am constantly amazed at those who complain about having to pay to view a record. It would be wonderful if every record we needed was freely available but that is not the case and I suspect will never be the case. FamilySearch.org provides all its’ collections for free and there are many free collections on other sites. However, there will come a time where you will need to pay to access a record. Companies spend money finding and collecting records, digitizing and indexing them, and creating databases and websites. They have employees to pay and other costs to recover and of course, a profit to make. Why should we expect that they make their collections available to us for free?
And perhaps the hardest for those of us passionate about our research…. do not expect that every family member will share your enthusiasm for what you’ve found. Many of them might think you are kind of strange for spending so much time and effort ‘looking for dead people’. Keep researching anyway!
So what CAN you expect as you start out? You can expect to find a large and interesting genealogy community full of wonderful people ready to help with any questions you may have. You should expect to continue to learn and should take advantage of the many webinars, blogs, newsletters, conferences and institutes, genealogical and historical societies and the many experienced genealogists out there willing to share their knowledge. And in my opinion, you should expect to give back in some manner … index some records (find out more here), volunteer your time and get involved in your local genealogical society, take photos of a gravestone for someone or offer look up services at your local courthouse, blog about your research so that others also researching those lines may find you and collaborate with you.
There are some things to NOT expect when you are starting out but there are a lot of wonderful things you CAN expect as you get started on the journey to finding your ancestors.