Discover … Internet Archive

Discover-Internet-Archive-g

Internet Archive:  Described as ‘a non-profit library of millions of free books, movies, software, music, websites, and more.’[1] Internet Archive is a great site to search for just about anything. The “Wayback Machine” allows the archives of the web to be searched.  Users are then able to view archived web pages even for web sites which no longer exist.

In terms of genealogical research there is a wealth of information available.  Clicking on their American Libraries collection, for example, pulls up over 2,450,000 different items in over 1000 collections.  A quick look under North Carolina Directories shows 925 city and business directories with a wide range of years.

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Internet Archive. https://archive.org/

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You can then select a specific directory to look at.  Each directory is fully searchable and easily downloaded.  All collections on Internet Archive can be filtered by Media Type, Year, Topic and Subject, Creator, and Language.

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Internet Archive. http://www.archive.org/details/bransonnorthcar1869rale

The Internet Archive collection for World War II contains almost 6000 items including 2,839 movies, newsreels and audio recordings.   Did you know you can see census records on Internet Archive?  The United States Census collection holds over 23,000 items, with approximately 13,004,791 page images.

Several historical societies provide content to Internet Archive as a means of preserving it for the future.  The Minnesota Historical Society provides newspapers and manuscripts in the 2,661 items on Internet Archive and the Georgia Historical Society has several old journals and books in its’ collection.

You can even listen to Winston Churchill as he sends his thoughts to American troops and citizens on Thanksgiving 1944, or to President Roosevelt as he calls on Congress to declare war on Japan on 8 December 1941.  Both can be found in Internet Archive’s Community Audio collection.

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Internet Archive. https://archive.org/details/FDR_Declares_War_19411208

This brief introduction doesn’t do justice to the incredible resource that Internet Archive is.  It’s a great tool to add to your genealogy toolbox.

[1] Internet Archive.  https://archive.org/. accessed March 31, 2017

Discover … Fulton History

Discover-Fulton

Fulton History is a historical newspaper site containing over 37 million newspaper pages (as of December 2016)[1] from the USA and Canada, as well as a few other locations. Even more remarkable is that the site is run by one person, Tom Tryniski, of Fulton, New York. Besides access to millions of newspaper pages, there are also postcards, maps and photographs.

The site is searchable and each newspaper page can be downloaded as a PDF. There is help available in the FAQ including different ways to search the database.

FultonHistoryFAQ
fultonhistory.com FAQs

To see which newspapers are available, click on the FAQ-Help-Index button at the top of the page. The first few lines contain the link to view all the newspapers available on the site.   Instead of going through the index page by page, download the index as a Microsoft Excel file.  The link to download it is at the top of the screen in blue.

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Index of Newspapers, Fultonhistory.com

The downloaded Excel file gives you a list of newspaper titles arranged alphabetically by County.   It’s an easy way to see which counties are covered and by which newspapers.

If you have ancestors in New York State, then you have at your fingertips an incredible free resource thanks to the efforts of Mr Tryniski.

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fultonhistory.com

Discover … The Arizona Memory Project

Discover-AZ-Memory

The Arizona Memory Project is a project of the Arizona State Library, Archives and  Public Records. The site provides access to a wealth of primary source documents, photographs, maps and other multimedia items showcasing Arizona’s past and present.

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A specific collection can be searched (of which there are over 270) or a general search of the entire site can be done.  You can narrow your search by creator, coverage, date, subject or type.

AZ Memory search

I conducted a few different searches to see how the search engine worked and was impressed with the results.  From a search on a specific ancestor’s name which resulted in finding an oral interview with an extended family member speaking about a second great grand-uncle and his settling of Alpine, Arizona to a general search on territorial stage-coach routes and a book detailing those routes across Arizona.  A location search for the settlement of Maricopa Wells (a settlement which developed as a watering hole and rest area along the Butterfield Overland mail route and which no longer exists) resulted in several photographs of Indian ruins close to Maricopa Wells as well as photographs of various named and unnamed people standing outside their homes in the area.

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A search for a specific event, in this case, for the ‘Gunfight at the OK Corral’ yielded scans of original documents including the recently discovered ‘Coroner’s Transmittal Page to the Clerk of the District Court concerning the Inquest of the gunfight at the OK Corral’. These missing documents were discovered in the Cochise County Courthouse in 2010 and were transferred to the Arizona State Library, Archives and Public Records where they were scanned and preserved.

The Arizona Memory Project is a rich resource for anyone conducting research in Arizona.

He registered for the Draft but did he serve? Using Ancestry’s new collection U.S., Army Transport Service, Passenger Lists, 1910-1939

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803rd Pioneer Infantry Battalion on the U.S.S. Philippine docked at Brest Harbor, France, July 18, 1919. Photographs, prints, ephemera from the Gladstone collection, Prints & Photographs Division, Library of Congress, LC-DIG-ppmsca-11458

Ancestry’s new collection U.S., Army Transport Service, Passenger Lists, 1910-1939, consists of passenger lists detailing all those departing from or arriving at U.S. ports on Army Transport ships.  World War 1 Draft registrations show who registered for the draft but that does not mean they served. The Army Transport Services Lists show the men enlisted at the time of the war.  It is important to note that these are not military service records.  They include the ship name, arrival and departure date and place and the service member’s name, rank, service number, age, residence, next of kin with relationship and the regiment that they were attached to.

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U.S., Army Transport Service, Passenger Lists, 1910-1939. ancestry.com. Accessed April 6, 2017.

Private Henry Edwin Zimmerman departed Brooklyn, New York on 15 August 1918 on board the Briton sailing for Bordeaux, France.  Further U.S. Army Transport Service Lists in which Henry Edwin Zimmerman appears show him departing Bordeaux, France on 7 June 1919, arriving back at the port of Hoboken, New Jersey on 18 June 1919.  If we previously did not have the regiment Henry Zimmerman served with, these Army Transport Service lists provide that information.  Further research can then be done on that regiment to learn more about their role in the war.

Comparing Draft Registrations with U.S. Army Transport Service Passenger Lists

An interesting comparison can be made between a Draft Registration and the Army Transport Service Lists to determine if someone who registered for the Draft ultimately ended up serving.

Henry Edwin Zimmerman was one of five Zimmerman brothers eligible for service during World War 1.  All five registered for the Draft.  Two of the brothers claimed exemption, one on medical grounds and one based on his employment in the farming industry. Of the three who did not claim any exemption, one was aged 32, married with an infant and was a farmer.  He was temporarily exempted under Draft Category III: ‘Temporarily exempted but available for military service. Registrants employed in agricultural labor or industrial enterprises essential to the war effort’. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Selective_Service_Act_of_1917)

Youngest brother, Charles Stephen Zimmerman, aged 21, was drafted under the second Draft registration, on June 5, 1918, for those men who attained age 21 after June 5, 1917. Charles S. Zimmerman was training with the Merchant Marines which exempted him from military duty.  The third brother who did not claim an exemption was 22-year-old Otto Emil Zimmerman.  He registered for the draft on 5 June 1917.  As of this post, military service records for him have not been found. Otto Emil Zimmerman was single with no dependents and would have been eligible and liable for military service.

It is interesting to note that the two brothers, Henry Edwin Zimmerman and Louis William Zimmerman who both claimed an exemption, were called up for service.

Name Draft Registration Date
Age & Occupation
Claimed exception? Served?
George Everett Zimmerman 12 Sep 1918; 32; Farmer No No.[1]
Henry Edwin Zimmerman 5 June 1917; 25; Salesman Expert Yes. Grounds – hernia. Yes[2]
Louis William Zimmerman 5 June 1917; 24; Shipping Clerk Yes.  Grounds – employed by farmer making farming implements Yes[3]
Otto Emil Zimmerman 5 June 1917; 22; Book keeper No No records found
Charles Stephen Zimmerman 5 June 1918; 21; Office Work – Shipping No Training with Merchant Marines[4]

[1] Third Draft Registration for men aged 18 to 35.  George had married in 1917 and had a 4-month-old child in September 1918.  Perhaps exempted Class III: ‘Temporarily exempted, but available for military service. Registrants employed in agricultural labor or industrial enterprises essential to the war effort’.

[2] First Draft Registration, on June 5, 1917, was for all men between the ages of 21 and 31. Henry was unmarried with no dependents therefore was eligible and liable for military service.

[3] First Draft Registration, on June 5, 1917.  Louis was unmarried with no dependents, therefore was eligible and liable for military service.

[4] Second Draft Registration, on June 5, 1918, registered those who attained age 21 after June 5, 1917. Charles was in training with the Merchant Marines in June 1918 and therefore exempt from military service.

Army Transport Service Passenger Lists are another great resource for research into World War 1.  In addition to troop information, this collection also contains information on non-military passengers traveling on these ships, including any family members traveling with their military spouses.

 

 

 

 

 

Using Family Stories in Our Research

Prison

Family stories, lore, myths or legends. It doesn’t matter what you call them. Every family has one, or many.  Don’t we all want to know if they are true or not? Use a family story as a beginning point in your research and locate additional records to determine just how true (or false!) it may be.

A family story, passed down through the years, paints Lyman Perry Fuller in a good light, as a hero, trying to save his sister’s cattle from thieves.  There was a gunfight and a bystander was shot.  Lyman Perry Fuller was convicted of the crime and sentenced to 18 years in prison.  That’s how the story goes but is it really what happened?  Eighteen years in prison seems a particularly harsh sentence if Lyman were simply defending the cattle from being stolen.  Could there be more to this story?  There usually is.  Using the family story as a starting point, can we determine whether the events leading up to Lyman’s incarceration are a tall tale or whether they may have a kernel of truth in them?

Through further research there appears to be 3 versions of the events that led up to Lyman Perry Fuller’s imprisonment:

Version 1:  The Family Story

In 1870 Lyman Perry Fuller’s sister, Lisania Fuller Judd and her husband Hyrum Judd, were living in Eagle Valley, Nevada where they had established a dairy business.  Lyman travelled to Eagle Valley around 1872 to visit his sister and stopped at a bar in town to ask directions to the ranch. He overheard men talking about stealing cattle from the Mormons (Lisania and Hyrum Judd were members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and had been sent to settle the area of Eagle Valley).  When Lyman got to Lisania’s home he repeated what he had heard, and the sheriff was notified. Upon returning to town, Lyman was met by the cattle thieves and a gun fight ensued.  A spectator was killed and Lyman was arrested. He spent the next 18 years in the Nevada State Prison accused of murder in the second degree.[1]

Version 2:  The Newspaper accounts

In 1872, just a few weeks after the crime, the Ely Record[2] wrote a short article stating that Lyman P. Fuller was indicted for murder ‘of a woman of the town’.   No mention is made of cattle thieves just the intriguing reference to a woman being the one murdered.

On October 24, 1872, the New Daily Appeal of Carson City had the following article[3].

LymanPFuller1832_15yearsentence

The woman was named as Fanny Peterson.  Lyman pled guilty to the crime and was sentenced to 15 years in the State Prison. It would appear that there was more to the story than cattle thieves, at least in what was reported by the newspapers of the day.

In early 1881 Lyman Perry Fuller had served almost 10 years in prison.  He began to seek a full pardon based on the grounds that he had served almost two-thirds of his sentence and had shown exemplary conduct during imprisonment.  Lyman also noted that there were extenuating circumstances connected with the case, that his attorney had not done a good job and that his health was poor[4].

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Nevada State Prison, Carson City, Nevada. Photo in public domain.

Newspapers carried the story on 26 February 1881 and were not favorable towards Lyman Fuller.  They called the murder ‘a cruel and wanton act’ and gave an account of the crime as follows:

“Fuller had been living with a Spanish courtesan knows as ‘Panama Jack’, alias Fannie Paterson, and several months previous to the killing they had quarreled and separated.  At 9 o’clock on the morning of July 11, 1872, Fuller issued from his lodging-house, having seen the woman passing to her residence and, without warning, fired upon her, the ball taking effect in the right forearm, badly shattering the radius. The woman attempted to run, but fell, whereupon he deliberately walked to where she was lying, and standing almost over her prostrate form, fired two more shots at her, one of which took effect in the left hip and passed through the ilium into the abdominal cavity.  The other shot passed through her clothing without harming her. … The woman died from the effects of her wounds four days after the shooting.  Fuller, sometime previous to the murder, set fire to and attempted to burn the building occupied by this woman.  Perry Fuller, in Pioche, was one of the lowest characters of men, gaining a livelihood by following the profession of what is called a “check guerilla’, and compelling this poor, fallen wretch of a woman to give him what little money she could gather, beating and abusing her if she refused to obey him.” [5]

Again, no mention of the cattle thieves as described in the family story.  The newspaper article further stated that Mr. Fuller did not deserve to be pardoned and that he should have hung for his crime instead of being imprisoned.  His pardon was denied.

Two years later, in July 1883, Lyman Fuller again appealed to the Board of Pardons and this time his parole was approved.

Version 3:  Lyman Perry Fuller’s own words

In a statement given in 1881 Lyman Fuller describes in his own words what happened:

“On the 25th of Nov 1875 I arrived in Pioche.  One of the first men I met was Jack Harris, and during our conversation informed him of the intention to proceed to Eagle Valley the following day to visit a sister I had not seen for twenty years. Harris said he would introduce me to a friend of his, a butcher, who went to Eagle Valley every day with his wagon, and I could ride out with him, that the butcher went there to see one of the boys.  I asked him what he meant by ‘one of the boys’ and he replied that he meant of the Spanish George’s pale. Harris gave me the name of the man as Woods, with the information he (Woods) was acting as agent for George and his gang; that Woods disposed of stolen cattle to the Pioche butchers, and that George and Woods were the leaders of the d_____dest gang of cattle thieves ever known on the coast; that they were furnishing all the butchers in Pioche with stolen cattle at a very low figure.

I had not been two hours in my sisters company before she informed me they (her and her husband) had settled in Eagle Valley six years previous with a number of head of stock but since the mining excitement broke out at Pioche they had lost all their stock.  I asked my sister if there was a man named Woods living in the valley, and she told me he was their nearest neighbor. I there and then informed her that Woods and his gang were stealing their cattle, etc. My brother-in-law immediately took steps to ascertain the truth of my statements and in so doing told some neighbors what he had learned from me.  Woods hearing of the investigation being made left the country. On the next visit paid my sister, I turned a fine horse into the pasture and he was stolen the first night.  A few nights after one of George’s gang, a Mexican, rode up to a house I was visiting on a horse resembling the one I lost and I detained him over night, when daylight came I seen my mistake and allowed him to leave.  This of course made George my bitter and active enemy and then my troubles commenced, for George was not alone in persecuting me for doing my duty, but was aided by several men and one woman doing business in Pioche.  The house of the Negro woman, Lize Lawson was the rendezvous of the worst gang of thieves in the country’ she was running two butcher-shops in the town and doubtless interested in others elsewhere; there the plot was concocted to put me out of the way in some manner the least liable to excite public suspicion, and if matters had not taken a turn to afford them the opportunity to prosecute me under the cloak of the law I would have met death in some form at their hands, for at this time I was privately visiting a Spanish woman and the game was theirs whenever wanted. I left the woman and then George and Lize influenced her to circulate the story that I had threatened to burn the town, Lize, of course, being most industrious to its circulation. Some of the gang went so far as to place sharings saturated in oil under   several houses and claiming that I did it, creating such a feeling that my life was in danger. Had it not been for a night-watchman named Hickey, who came to me one night and (after stating he had been watching my actions for sometime and became convinced of the falseness of the stories) warned me to be on my guard, that these women for some reason unknown to him wanted me killed and if I was not very careful they would accomplish their object, I would have fallen a victim to their revenge. Hickey gave me the names of several men who were laying for me, but they have escaped my memory; one of them killed John Monahan in Pioche.

A moderate drinker for twenty years previous to this time, the traps laid to prejudice the community and compass my assassination, conscious of never committing any crime against person or property, so harassed and preyed upon my mind that I foolishly sought relief where it got the better of me and my mind gave completely away under the pressure of worriment and drink.  No thought ever entered my mind to injure any one of enemies, for I concluded everyone would, sooner or later, become satisfied that I was the victim and not the criminal, if I was not killed. My intellect at last gave way under the constant pressure and the taking of human life the result, an act I deeply deplore and have suffered for mentally and physically for the last eight and a half years”.[6]

Lyman Perry Fuller’s version of events includes the cattle thieves and his attempt to do a good deed in stopping them.  Here lie the seeds for the origin of the family story.  The truth of what really happened that day is unclear.  Lyman Perry Fuller never denies that he did take a human life but attributes it to a mental breakdown. The events leading up to the crime differ depending on whether you believe the family story, the newspaper accounts or Lyman’s own words.

These stories are part of our family history, they aren’t always true but many times may contain a kernel of truth.   Use a family story as a beginning point in your research.  Find other information to corroborate or disprove it, but never ignore it. Research will help determine which family stories are true, somewhat true or completely false.  Whatever the outcome they give our factual research great color.

[1] Judd Family Traditions. Hilga Judd Frier, compiler. Pleasant Grove, Utah.
[2] “Criminal Matters”, The Ely Record, Pioche City, Lincoln, Nevada, 6 Sep 1872; digital images, Genealogybank.com (www.genealogybank.com : accessed Feb 2017).
[3] “Prisoners and Insane”, The New Daily Appeal, Carson City, Nevada, 24 Oct 1872, digital images, Genealogybank.com (www.genealogybank.com : accessed Feb 2017).
[4] Nevada State Prison, Carson City, Nevada, Inmate file for Lyman Perry Fuller, Nevada State Archives; photocopy, (http://nsla.nv.gov/Archives/Archival_Records/).
[5] “Local Intelligence”, Pioche Weekly Record, Pioche, Nevada, 26 Feb 1881, digital images,  Chroniclingamerica.loc.gov (http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/ : accessed Feb 2017).
[6] Nevada State Prison, Carson City, Nevada, Inmate file for Lyman Perry Fuller, Nevada State Archives; photocopy, (http://nsla.nv.gov/Archives/Archival_Records/).

Save

Memories in Our Genes?

genes_flat
Could our ancestors’ experiences leave a mark on our DNA?

What makes people different from each other?  What made our ancestors different from each other?  Why are some people happy and optimistic, able to weather any storm with great inner fortitude?  And what makes some people anxious and pessimistic, susceptible to depression?   No doubt our ancestors displayed these same variations in character.    Are those character or personality traits random or could it be that we carry in our genes some kind of ‘genetic memory’ of our ancestors’ experiences?

I’ve long been fascinated with the idea that we may not only have Grandma’s hands but that maybe we also have Grandma’s predisposition towards anxiety.   Could our ancestors’ experiences, whether traumatic or favorable, leave a mark on our DNA?  Scientists studying the field of what is now called ‘Behavioral Epigenetics’ think so.

Animal studies seem to support the idea that the environment can affect an individual’s genetics, which can in turn be passed on.  An Emory University School of Medicine study in 2013 showed that mice trained to fear the smell of cherry blossoms would, when bred, pass along that fear to their children and grandchildren.  Those mice descendants had never been exposed to the smell of cherry blossoms before but exhibited a negative reaction to it.  Not only was their behavior affected but the brain showed a physical change in the area that processes odor and a marker was found on the odor gene of the mouse DNA.

According to an article written for Discover Magazine by Dan Hurley. “Jews whose great-grandparents were chased from their Russian shtetls; Chinese whose grandparents lived through the ravages of the Cultural Revolution; young immigrants from Africa whose parents survived massacres; adults of every ethnicity who grew up with alcoholic or abusive parents — all carry with them more than just memories”.[1]

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Our ancestors’ experiences may affect us more than we realize. (Photo in public domain)

It’s highly unlikely that we will suddenly remember Great Granddad’s wedding day but the idea that perhaps our genomes carry some type of genetic marker from an ancestor’s experience doesn’t seem too far out of the realm of possibility to me.   The results of the research currently occurring may even help to explain why people suffer from seemingly irrational phobias – it may be based on the inherited experiences of their ancestors.  Thanks then to whichever of my ancestors passed along a decidedly unreasonable fear of moths that I have had since I was a child!

[1] Hurley, Dan. “May 2013.” Discover Magazine. May 2013. Web. 01 Mar. 2017. <http://discovermagazine.com/2013/may/13-grandmas-experiences-leave-epigenetic-mark-on-your-genes&gt;.

 

Top Tips for RootsTech 2017

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RootsTech 2017 is 3 weeks away.  Time to get organized!

  • Classes: Decide which classes you want to attend. This is probably the hardest as there are going to be multiple classes that you would love to attend all happening at the same time.  Decide on your top 3 choices.  Then, if your number one class is full you are ready with your next choice.  Use the RootsTech App to keep track of your personalized daily schedule.
  • Family History Library: Build in time in your schedule for the Family History Library. I am heading up a day early to take advantage of the proximity of the Library to the Salt Palace Convention Center where RootsTech 2017 is taking place.  Make sure you know what you want to look at in the Library and make good use of your research time.  The Family History Library is a black hole when it comes to how fast time flies whilst there!
  • Network: RootsTech is a great place for networking with friends and colleagues. It’s a great place to make new contacts too.   Make the effort to meet in person those genie friends you know online.  It doesn’t hurt to have a business card to hand out!
  • Electronics: almost every RootsTech attendee will have their laptop or tablet with them.  Some attendees take notes on them or quickly look up a new website being mentioned by a presenter.  You’ll want your updated genealogy software program on there, especially if you plan to do research at the Family History Library.  Don’t forget those chargers.
  • Comfy shoes! No need to explain further.  The Salt Palace Convention Center is huge, you’ll be walking a lot.

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Bonus Tip:

I like to print out the syllabus for each session and use that to make notes on.   I also write where that session will be taking place on the top of the handout.  I then file them in the order the classes will be happening each day.  As of the time of writing, the syllabi for each session is not on the RootsTech website yet but they do seem to be available via the RootsTech app.  I was able to click on the session I am interested in and page to the bottom where a link appears for the syllabus (if the presenter has one).   By tapping on it you can select to either Take Notes on the Handout, Download Handout or Email Handout.

Learn more about RootsTech 2017 here.  See you in Salt Lake!